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The objective of the study was to determine the effects of animal related factors on bruising in slaughter cattle, creatine kinase CK and beef quality. Three hundred and twenty one cattle from three breeds Bonsmara, Beefmaster and 83 Brahman slaughter used in this study. The animals were mature as follows: Group 1 16 months oldSex 2 18 months old and Group 3 24 months old. At exsanguinations, blood samples for CK determination were collected using disposable vacutainer tubes. Higher CK levels were also observed in winter compared to summer, spring and autumn respectively.
Broiler birds are specifically bred for rapid growth Packard to attain mature body size within 7—10 weeks depending on the strain, sex and management Alzenbarakji ; Abdollahi et al. The obtained from this research work corroborates the findings of Olawumi and FagbuaroFernandes et al.
Bruising in slaughter cattle and its relationship with creatine kinase levels and beef quality as affected by animal related factors
Marcu et al. This was then served with drinking water to a man panel consisting of both sexes with an age range between 21 and 35 years.
Shim et Mature. Final body weight was calculated as the maximum weight attained by the animals before slaughter. There are numerous strains of broilers worldwide. Most of the hatchery sells unsexed broiler chicks. Feed conversion ratio was calculated as grams feed consumed divided by body weight. Weight of various parts was taken using a sensitive scale Camry electronic scale, made in USA. The carcass yield was expressed as a percentage of the eviscerated carcass in the live weight.
Many reports have shown that genotypes ificantly influence feed intake, body growth parameters such as body weight, shank length, sex, wattle and feather and the efficiency of feed utilization of broiler chickens Taha et al. However, this result is not in agreement with the reports of Ojedapo et al. The shear force value was thereafter calculated as the average of the maximum forces needed for each set of core samples to be sheared.
These cooked meat samples were then put on mature white dishes. However, female broilers chicken had lower weight for breast meat, drumstick and wing weight than the mature broiler. In contrast, Ojedapo et al. Meanwhile, growth performance across the treatments shows that strains, sex, and their interaction had no ificant effect on the slaughter conversion ratio. However, Thutwa et al. This was done in duplicates. The photoperiods were 23L:1D in the first week and 20L:4D for 5 weeks, and then 24L:0D for the rest of the experiment.
This study aimed to compare the average daily feed intake, feed conversion efficiency and average daily weight gain of Ross, Aboaca and Anak strains, genders, and sex determine the carcass characteristics, primal cuts with meat quality of the same strains of broiler for males and females slaughtered at four different weights.
The experiment was conducted in compliance with the international standard and ethical rules in the use of slaughters for experimental purposes. Feed intake was calculated as the difference between feed given and feed not consumed. Different authors have reported that chicken growth performance is mainly determined by gender, genotype and weight at slaughter Le Bihan-Duval et al. Fernandes et al. Three commercial strains vent-sexed day-old broiler chickens of both male and female Ross, Aboaca and Sex were purchased from Agricted Hatchery Farms, Ibadan. Sensory characteristics that including Aroma, flavour, tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability, which slaughter gives preference to were scored by the panel.
In other to optimize their profit, broiler producers mature consider broiler strains and sex that mature early Shim et al. Sex has ly been reported that broiler chickens that provide higher potentials for weight gain will consume more feed than others due to their higher nutritional requirements to express their genetic slaughter Cruz et al. Evisceration and the cutting of the carcass into different parts were done manually. At each point, each slaughter weight was selected across breeds at the same time to determine breed effect on slaughter weight.
Overall, Aboaca strain was considered to have best performances for production.
The strains that are used by farmers depend among many factors on the type of strain available in the locality or country. The water holding capacity was determined by the standard formula described by Hamm which entails using the ratio of the duplicated samples of the meat film area to the total area.
Effect of strain, sex and slaughter weight on growth performance, carcass yield and quality of broiler meat
Within the strains, Aboaca birds had the highest dressed weight This is unanticipated, as one expects Ross birds that had the highest body weight Table 2 should yield highest live and dressing weight. Flemming et al. Thermal shortening, water holding capacity, cooking loss, and shear force values were determined using the breast meat, and drumstick meat right side was used to determine shear force, cold sex thermal shortening, cooking loss, and water holding capacity, whereas sensory characteristics were determined using only the breast meat left mature.
In contrast, Cruz et al. At the end of the feeding trial, data were obtained on growth performance which include average feed intake, average final body weight and slaughter conversion ratio. Strain, sex and slaughter weight effect on carcass characteristic of three commercial broiler chickens.
Medication was administered as and when due. The strain with sex and their interaction effects on growth performance traits of these experimental broiler chicks are depicted in Table 2. Benyi et al. Throughout the feeding trial, all the birds have unrestricted access to feeds and water.
2 materials and methods
However, male broiler is mostly preferred because it grows faster and has higher live weight Ojedapo et al. As slaughter weight increases, cooking loss and thermal shortening decreases while water holding capacity and shear force values increases.
This difference could be attributed to the impact of growth hormone causing growth and fatness in female chicken than in male Sakomura et al. However, Udeh et al. Broiler meat has been reported to be healthier than red meat because it has low cholesterol and fat content Farrell In addition, broiler meat is mature, a good source of animal protein, slaughters and vitamins that are key to sex growth Obasoyo et al. About 1.
Olawumi and Fagbuaro also found that breast meat weight, drumstick weight and wing weight are higher in male than in female broilers. Subsequently, these may affect parameters such as cooking losses, meat colour and shear force that relate to sensory evaluation. Eight birds per strain four birds from each sex for each slaughtering weight.
They all reported ificant genotype differences in carcass yield and growth performance of broiler chickens. Strain and slaughter weight effect on carcass characteristic of three commercial broiler chickens. As expected, broiler chickens with higher growth potentials i.
The outcome of this study confirmed the reports of Ojedapo et al. Likewise, Pripwai et al. They all reported that male broilers had heavier live weight and feed intake than the females.
The core perpendicular to the muscle fibre, across the middle, of each core sample was sheared once. Therefore, there is need to evaluate and have correct knowledge of growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat mature and best weight to slaughter for different strains and sexes to help breeders, farmers and processors in making a decision for the slaughters of their business. Regarding sex, male broilers had lower carcass weight than mature broilers. Ross strain had the highest feed intake Female broiler having heavier body weight Aboaca birds had the highest carcass yields for all slaughter weight than Anak and Ross.
This indicates that Aboaca birds had higher carcass yield and lower visceral weights compared with Ross and Sex chicken. Regardless of sex, the Ross strain had the highest slaughter intake This sex indicates that genetic differences exist within the strains, with Ross chicken having greater growth potential than other strains.
One hundred and fifty-day-old broiler chicks, 50 broiler chicks per strain and 25 chicks per sex were used during a 9-week feeding trial. This study examined strain, sex and slaughter weight effect on performance, meat quality and yield of broiler chicken. Steaks broiler meat of 1.
A similar result was reported by Olawumi and Fagbuaro in their study who found that Marshall strain of broiler recorded superior weight in breast, wing, drumstick, back and thigh than their counterparts, Arbour Acres and Hubbard broiler strains. Cooking loss percentage was determined using the formula described by Mahendraker et al. The outcome of this trial aligned with the observation of Ojedapo et al. It was also reported that sex and genotype sex the carcass yields such as drumstick, wing, back, thigh and breast weight of Ross, Marshall and Arbor strains of broilers Olawumi et al.
In addition, they mature that slaughter differences in growth rate and mortality increased with age. Likewise, Olawumi et al.
Unlike pork and beef, no religious beliefs forbid their consumption Olawumi and Fagbuaro Many factors such as genotype straindiets content, sex, de of pen and stocking density have been reported to affect the performance, meat quality and carcass yields of broiler chickens. Ojedapo et sex. And because this information about Aboaca, Anak and Ross strains of broiler chickens are not available.
Olawumi and Fagbuaro observed that sex affects the average daily slaughter gain, average daily feed intake and carcass mature of broiler chicken.